Friday, 28 September 2018


Site in construction.

Information provided in this website aims to promote rejuvenation and replanting of senile coconut plantations in the Pacific region using preferably local coconut varieties. It includes mother palm selections; nursery management and support for establishment of pilot nurseries; promotion of farming systems (including agro-forestry) technologies as a means of optimising land use, enhance multi-cropping in contrast to mono-cropping and improving livelihood opportunities for farming households including rural women. The terms of references of the expertise on Coconut Production and Seeds System in the Pacific Region  are given here.

Varieties for replanting
New tool for calculating the number of seednuts needed at national level 
Preparation of the world first regional coconut varietal contest!
COGENT recommendations about planting material
Variety, Cultivar, Population and Accession, what does it mean?
The world catalogue of coconut conserved germplasm
List of germplasm conserved in ex situ coconut genebanks
Tall varieties
Dwarf and Compact Dwarf varieties
Hybrids Dwarf x Tall, Tall x Tall and Dwarf x Dwarf

Selection of mother palms and seednuts

Cut all old coconut palms and replant
Replant only improductive palms
Replant in the interow and cut old palms later
Selling coconut hearts (Chou coco or millionnaire's salad) to largely cover the costs of slaughtering senile coconut palms and replanting young palms.
Farming systems
How to kill old and unproductive coconut palms in an organic way without sawing?

Organic management of coconut plantations
Coconut genebanks for seednut production
General principles for setting up a new coconut genebank
A "golden rule" for coconut genebanks

Overview by countries (proposal)
As debated in the Global Strategy for conservation and use of genetic resources, it seems possible to estimate roughly the number of coconut palms planted yearly at the global level. Coconut is cultivated as a crop on 12 million hectares, totaling approximately 1.44 billion palms, based on the likely average population density of 120 palms/ha. If we assume that coconut palms are replanted on average every 50 years, we can estimate that at least 28.9 million coconut palms (1/50, so 2%) need to be replanted each year simply to maintain a constant cultivated area. In fact the coconut area is presently increasing. Moreover, this first estimation does not take into account that a significant percentage of existing palms are already senile (more than 50 years old) and need to be replaced as soon as possible. Thus, this first estimation will have to be refined at the Pacific regional level, and for each Pacific country involved in CIDP project.

To give an estimate of the number of seednuts needed at the countries level, and provide information on where to find good seednuts.

Production of coconut by ACP Pacific countries as estimated by FAO
and planning by country (the seven countries supposed to be visited are in bold)

 Cook Islands
 Federated States of Micronesia
 Marshall Islands
 Papua New Guinea
 Solomon Islands

Other useful tools
Developing coconut "sanctuaries", coconut eco-museum and spice gardens in the Pacific region.

Friday, 15 December 2017

Organization of a "train the trainees" meeting

This training session will probably be organized in Fiji, Vanua Levu, from 18th to 20th Avril 2018. Participants should arrive on 17th evening or be present on 18th at 9 am.

There are two options:

Option 1: Near Nadi.  A Coconut nursery could be created at the Legalega Agricultural research centre (Geographical localisation: -17.753568, 177.467146), not far from Nadi Airport. In this case, the venue of the meeting could be organized at one of these hotels:

- A.I. Apartments, Lot 3 Qalibuto Road, Legalega Nadi.
- Grand Melanesian Hotel
- Tanoa Votualevu Road Nadi Airport, Nadi, Fidji

Option 2: Near Suva. We will use the coconut palms and the nursery of Koronivia Research Centre (geographical localisation -18.048586, 178.530078) and improve it.

Possible venue:

- Peninsula hotel
- South point lodge Lot 10, Adi Davila Rd, Nasinu, Fidji

Tentative programme

Day 1 - April, 18, 2018
Presentation of participants
Coconut reproductive biology and its consequences
Methods for coconut breeding
Selection of mother palms
Day 2 - April, 19, 2018
Seedbed and Nursery
Planting methods and designs
Organic ws traditional management
Day 3 - April, 20, 2018 Friday
Incentives for boosting national coconut production
New tools for estimating the evolution of coconut production
The necessity of giving varietal choice to farmers
Preparation of a Regional coconut varietal contest
Closing ceremony
Day 4 (Saturday, optional) fields visits

Tentative list of participants


- extension officers

The terms of references of the expertise on Coconut Production and Seeds System in the Pacific Region

The results to be achieved by the expert are as follows :

1. A training package covering, for organic and conventional systems
  • Mother palm selections, nursery management and establishments of nurseries
  • Farming systems (including agro-forestry) technologies as a means of optimising land use, enhance multi-cropping
2. Implement a regional train the trainers workshop covering all relevant aspects of  Coconut Production and Seeds System in the Pacific Region

3. Design and implement public private seed supply systems in 7 PICs (selected in conjunction with SPC, materials/inputs provided outside of this contract)

Detailed terms of references are available here. The purpose of the expertise is as follows: To promote rejuvenation and replanting of senile coconut plantations using adapted coconut varieties by training extension, research staffs and farmers on mother palm selections, nursery management and support for establishment of pilot nurseries. This will be carried out back to back with the promotion of farming systems (including agro-forestry) technologies as a means of optimizing land use, enhance multi-cropping in contrast to mono-cropping and improving livelihood opportunities for farming households including rural women.  

Monday, 11 December 2017

Refining fruit characterization in garden and farmers fields

By Vijendra Kumar and R. Bourdeix

What to do when the coconut available is scarce?

In some coconut varieties, especially those located in gardens, it is very difficult to obtain seednuts. We tried to develop a technique usable when you get only one fruit per palm

This fruit analysis process took 30 minutes per coconut to a single man, not including harvest of the fruit, interactions with farmers, and time devoted to locate the variety. It includes 16 successive steps.

  1. Note the survey numbers
  2. Note if the fruits in young, turning color, mature or other mature
  3. Measure longitudinal circumference
  4. Measure equatorial circumference
  5. Weight the whole fruit
  6. Picture the whole fruit
  7. Spit the coconut in two by sawing
  8. Sample coconut water (not done this time)
  9. Weight the whole fruit without free water (the two halves together)
  10. Clean one half of the whole fruit with water, lemon and toothbrush
  11. Picture one half of the whole fruit
  12. Husk the two halves of the fruits
  13. Weight the husk
  14. Remove the kernel from the shell
  15. Weight the shell
  16. Sample 4 pieces of kernel (cut wash and pack).
Practical examples

Improving fruit pictures with Photoshop or other equivalent software.

organization of the "train the trainer" session

Putative date: 11 to 13 April 2018

Possible place
Tanoa hotel Lautoka (4 hours ride from Suva).

Sunday, 10 December 2017

Internships in Fiji - Where to find

If we want an internship or a communication officer, how to proceed?

There is

A Journalism school at UPS

School of Language Arts and Media (SLAM)
Faculty of Arts, Law and Education
The University of the South Pacific
Laucala Campus, Suva, Fiji,
Tel: +679 323 2214
Fax: +679 323 1500

Fijian National university

The 2001-2009 mother palm selection programme under CIDA (Coconut Industry Development Authority)

By V. Kumar and R. Bourdeix, December 2017

Under this authority, about 5000 Fijian Tall mother palms were selected in Vanua Levu. Selection criteria and method: One shot visual selection on circular crow shape, number of leaves (at least 30) and bunches (10 to 12), number of nuts per bunches (at least 6), large stem girth; these palms where selected in large farms fields of more than 200 palms. Selected palm were painted with a red or black ring around the stem, that should remain visible until now (2017). Data regarding these palms are the name of farmer, location (village and district), and number of selected palms.
During this period, about ZZZ seednuts were collected from these selected palms, and raised in about ZZZ on-farm and community nurseries. The initial target was to yearly produce about 123,000 seednuts (supposed quantity to plant/replant 890 hectare per year, so 138 seednuts per hectare ???). It is estimated that about ZZZ palms were planted during this period.
Note: try  to add tables and link to official reports.